https://jkw.wskw.org/index.php/jkw/issue/feed Journal of Kinesiology & Wellness 2021-09-28T05:20:35+00:00 Jeff Bernard jbernard1@csustan.edu Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of Kinesiology &amp; Wellness (JKW) is a peer-reviewed online journal that covers issues in physical activity, health, wellness, and sport. JKW is a publication of the <a href="http://www.wskw.org" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness</a> (WSKW) and is published bi-annually.</p> https://jkw.wskw.org/index.php/jkw/article/view/83 Message from the Editor 2021-03-22T21:55:15+00:00 Jeff Bernard jbernard1@csustan.edu 2021-03-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://jkw.wskw.org/index.php/jkw/article/view/82 Middle school students’ intrinsic motivation and expectancy value after participating in team sport units 2021-06-16T22:19:01+00:00 Minhyun Kim mxk056@shsu.edu José A. Santiago jas083@shsu.edu Hyeonho Yu hyeonhoyu@gmail.com Jun-Hyung Baek junbaek@ginue.ac.kr <p>Background/Purpose. K-12 students’ motivation levels have declined in physical education (PE) due to the lack of effective instructional practices, inappropriate class activities and gender inequities. Middle school students have shown low levels of motivation in physical education and lack of interest in its content. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine middle school students’ intrinsic motivation and expectancy value after participating in team sports units. Method. Participants consisted of 262 students (122 males; 140 females) from three middle schools located in the southwest region of the United States. After participating in team sport units during PE, the participants completed the expectancy-value questionnaire (Eccles &amp; Wigfield, 1995) and motivation inventory (McAuley, Duncan, &amp; Tammen, 1989). Analysis/Results. Data were analyzed by employing descriptive statistics, <em>t</em>-test, and analysis of variance. Results showed that 6th grade students perceived significantly higher expectancy-value and intrinsic value than 8th grade students in team sports. In addition, male students exhibited significantly higher expectancy-value and intrinsic value compare to female students. However, there was no statistically significant difference among ethnic groups. Conclusion.&nbsp; This study suggests that female students had lower levels of intrinsic motivation and expectancy value in team sports compared to male students. Furthermore, as students’ grade level increased from 6th to 8th grade, intrinsic motivation and expectancy value decreased.</p> 2021-03-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness https://jkw.wskw.org/index.php/jkw/article/view/84 Dilemmas and problems of being a moral educator 2021-05-10T21:18:06+00:00 Aubrey Shaw aubreyshaw2@isu.edu Sharon Stoll sstoll@uidaho.edu <p>Kinesiology is the science of human movement. Within the United States, kinesiology encompasses different sub-disciplines of human movement, e.g., exercise physiology, biomechanics, sport psychology, and philosophy, as well as, the professions of teaching, leading, and training. This paper addresses one issue, the lack of moral education in the preparation of kinesiology pre-professionals. Moral education is imperative for kinesiology students to address issues of right and wrong as well as engage in higher order reasoning however, many problems exist in applying moral education to kinesiology. First, even though 37 states have some sort of requirement that moral education is a part of the general public education curriculum, apparently, no direct teaching of moral values exists in public elementary, middle, and high schools. Students arrive at the university with no background. Second, direct teaching of moral values is nonexistent because: teachers and college instructors are not content experts in moral education, consumer-based education drives and affects students’ value of education, and the fallacious argument that ethics should only be taught to the young. Third, moral pedagogy is seldom applied. All of which directly affects kinesiology students in making decisions of right and wrong in a service profession.&nbsp; Therefore, the purpose of this narrative philosophical paper is twofold: to discuss the problems and dilemmas incorporating moral education in kinesiology curriculum and discuss three specific solutions, the: a) creation of moral development courses, b) use of writing intensive courses, and c) development of courses in pedagogy. A narrative philosophical approach discusses theory and supports with real life examples.</p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness https://jkw.wskw.org/index.php/jkw/article/view/85 Examining the relationship between falls self-efficacy and postural sway in community-dwelling older adults 2021-09-15T21:53:13+00:00 Kathleen McCarty mccarkat@oregonstate.edu Winston Kennedy kennedyw@oregonstate.edu Sam Logan Sam.Logan@oregonstate.edu Susan Levy slevy@sdsu.edu <p><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif; font-size: 14.6667px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">The most common cause for both fatal and nonfatal injuries for older adults in the U.S. is experiencing a fall. Researchers are interested in identifying variables which may help predict a person’s likelihood of falling to create targeted, preventative initiatives. Previous research has explored the relationship between psychosocial and biophysical fall predictors on fall outcomes but rarely explores the ontological lens which surrounds how these finding are interpreted. The purpose of this study was to further examine the relationship between falls self-efficacy and postural sway, in community-dwelling, aging adults (</span><em style="color: #000000; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif; font-size: 14.6667px; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">N</em><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif; font-size: 14.6667px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">=107, mean age 73.8, + 7.95, female 80) to bring a more robust understanding of fall risk assessment using a Biopsychosocial (BPS) perspective through the International Classification of Functioning model (ICF). The Modified Falls Efficacy Scale measured fall self-efficacy and the BTrackS balance assessment system measured postural sway. A moderate negative correlation was found between falls self-efficacy and eyes open postural sway (</span><em style="color: #000000; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif; font-size: 14.6667px; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">r</em><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif; font-size: 14.6667px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;= -.403,&nbsp;</span><em style="color: #000000; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif; font-size: 14.6667px; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">p&nbsp;</em><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif; font-size: 14.6667px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&lt; .001.), indicating that as a person’s self-efficacy score increases, their sway decreases, in line with previous studies. Participants experienced overall high self-efficacy, stellar balance performance for their age group, and low self-reported falls, leading one to wonder what variables cause the decline in performance and competence and/or contribute to a fall in such a group. Using a BPS perspective through the ICF, researchers suggest further exploration into the role that ableism and fear of disability play in the decline, and the responsibility of clinicians to disrupt anti-ableist narratives within rehabilitation and research.</span></p> 2021-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness https://jkw.wskw.org/index.php/jkw/article/view/89 3 WINS Fitness: A pilot study of a park-based program for low-income communities 2021-09-21T07:42:44+00:00 Suzanne E. Spear suzanne.spear@csun.edu Hui Xie jimmy.xie@csun.edu Daniel Hernandez daniel.hernandez.759@my.csun.edu Tennie Khanlian tennie.khanlian.877@my.csun.edu Joshua Carlos joshua.carlos.89@my.csun.edu Raul Figueroa-Valenzuela figueror101@gmail.com Roxana G. Barba roxanagbarba@gmail.com Joshua J.G. Manlutac joshua.manlutac.929@my.csun.edu Steven F. Loy steven.loy@csun.edu <p>Three-quarters of American adults do not meet recommended guidelines for physical activity. This article presents results from a pilot study of <em>3 WINS Fitness (“3 WINS”)</em>, a free, park-based program for adults that started in 2011 at California State University, Northridge. The program is operated by kinesiology student interns. The pilot study took place in one large park in Los Angeles and included three sessions per week for 10 weeks. <strong>Methods</strong>: The main outcome was change in BMI after the 10-week program. We collected pre-post data on 66 participants. Change in BMI was examined for the sample as a whole and by normal weight, overweight, and obese classifications. <strong>Results</strong>: We found a small but significant decrease in BMI at program completion; however, there appeared to be less improvement for participants who were obese. Acceptability of the program was high. Most participants (78.5%) attended 50% of sessions or more. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> <em>3 WINS</em> is a promising health promotion program that has the potential to be sustainable and scalable. Implementation of <em>3 WINS</em> at the site of this pilot study has remained active since 2011. The sustainability of <em>3 WINS</em> is facilitated by integrating the program into university kinesiology programs, creating partnerships with local parks, and reducing reliance on external funding to implement the program. The program has been adopted by numerous parks throughout Southern California and several universities throughout California.</p> 2021-09-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness https://jkw.wskw.org/index.php/jkw/article/view/90 Lighting up the sky: Experiential learning at a NCAA championship event 2021-09-21T08:08:48+00:00 Caroline E. Faure smittyfaure@isu.edu Beverly M. Ray beverlyray@isu.edu <p>Experiential learning is a critical component of sport management student learning and one that can transform the learning process. Not only are students able to apply classroom-acquired knowledge into practical situations, they are also provided the opportunity to build professional networks. Those networks could then assist students upon graduation when they enter a highly competitive job market. This study chronicles the capstone experiences of a group of undergraduate sport management students who were invited to work at a NCAA Championship event, the 2021 Big Sky Conference’s Men’s and Women’s Basketball Tournaments. Using Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory (ELT) as a framework for understanding, we aim to show how the experience produced optimal learning outcomes for a group of undergraduate sport management students. Specifically, we aim to show how our students benefitted by the contextual application of existing knowledge, through the acquisition of new knowledge, by experimenting with new knowledge, and from a unique opportunity for professional networking.</p> 2021-09-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness https://jkw.wskw.org/index.php/jkw/article/view/91 Physical education graduation requirements in Oregon’s tertiary institutions 2021-09-28T05:20:35+00:00 Alexandra Szarabajko szarabaa@oregonstate.edu Veyda J. Campos-Hernandez camposv@oregonstate.edu Bradley J. Cardinal Brad.Cardinal@oregonstate.edu <p><span data-contrast="auto">Physical activity behaviors tend to decline while weight gain and psychological distress tend to increase during college. Physical education requirements (PERs) can help college students acquire and practice healthy lifestyle skills while overcoming barriers to unhealthy behaviors, shaping positive and healthy future habits. The majority of colleges and universities in the U.S. throughout the 20</span><span data-contrast="auto">th</span><span data-contrast="auto"> century developed and implemented PERs; however, in the early 21</span><span data-contrast="auto">st</span><span data-contrast="auto">century, they dropped to an all-time low of 39%. Since their all-time high of 97% during the 1920s/1930s, a downward trend has been observed. The purpose of this study was to examine the current status of PERs in Oregon’s 2-year and 4-year institutions (</span><em><span data-contrast="auto">N</span></em> <span data-contrast="auto">=</span> <span data-contrast="auto">35). Results revealed</span> <span data-contrast="auto">that only 14.29% (i.e., 5 of 35) of Oregon’s institutions fully required PERs, while 28.57% (i.e., 10 of 35) did not require PERs for graduation. The majority of the sample (57.14%; i.e., 20 of 35) partially required physical education courses, meaning that not all degrees offered at the institution listed a PER or it was an option among a list of choices. Whereas all 2-year colleges required partial (</span><em><span data-contrast="auto">n</span></em><span data-contrast="auto"> = 17) PERs, the majority of 4-year institutions did not require PERs (</span><em><span data-contrast="auto">n</span></em><span data-contrast="auto"> = 10). Given the downward trend, there is an urgent need for updated state and national data on the status of PERs in U.S. colleges. Such data could help those in kinesiology and other wellness-related disciplines better advocate for the continuation of PERs and/or to understand the factors associated with their successful continuation.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}">&nbsp;</span></p> 2021-09-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness https://jkw.wskw.org/index.php/jkw/article/view/88 Fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin a1c differ by gender and race among emerging adults 2021-06-16T22:50:02+00:00 Michael E. Healy mhealy@pennstatehealth.psu.edu Oliver W. A. Wilson oww2@psu.edu Christopher M. Bopp cbopp@nec.edu <p>To examine the relationship between, and disparities in, glycemic markers among emerging adults. <strong>Methods</strong>: A diverse group of emerging adults affiliated with a large university located in the Northeast of the US were recruited. Participants self-reported demographic information, and lipids and glycemic markers were assessed using a finger-stick screening with participants fasted for a minimum of 9-12 hours before blood sampling. <strong>Results</strong>: Data were collected from 217 participants (21±2 years). Regardless of gender or race, no statistically significant relationship was found between FPG and either HbA<sub>1C</sub>. However, those of ‘other’ races were found to have significantly higher FPG and HbA<sub>1C</sub> compared to non-Hispanic white participants, and gender differences in glycemic markers were only observed among non-Hispanic white participants. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: While limited by a relatively small sample size, findings reinforce the importance of recognizing racial differences in glycemic markers when diagnosing and treating diabetes given racial disparities were observed in otherwise healthy emerging adults.</p> 2021-06-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness