Journal of Kinesiology & Wellness <p>The Journal of Kinesiology &amp; Wellness (JKW) is a peer-reviewed online journal that covers issues in physical activity, health, wellness, and sport. JKW is a publication of the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness</a> (WSKW) and is published bi-annually.</p> en-US (Jeff Bernard) (Ovande Furtado, Jr.) Thu, 12 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Injuries among first time participants in a Costa Rican high-intensity functional training facility - A pilot study <p>Research examining injuries in high-intensity functional training (HIFT) programs is scarce, especially when prospectively exploring the injuries of those new to HIFT. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to explore the injuries of first time HIFT program participants in a HIFT facility in Costa Rica.&nbsp; Four males (30.23 ± 3.6 yrs) and 8 females (29.3 ± 8.7 yrs) filled out six weekly prospective injury surveys via All participants were new to HIFT as defined by having no previous HIFT experience and having become a member of the same HIFT training facility within the last 2 months. Injuries were defined as anything that hurt the participant more than muscle soreness within the last seven days. The survey also asked about the injury location as well as the severity, time lost from training/work, exercise performed when injured, instructor supervision during the injury, and history of a related injury. Furthermore, the survey included items related to the amount of hours and number of days spent doing HIFT over the last week. Participants reported doing HIFT workouts at an average 3.8 +/- 0.7 days per week for a total average of 3.3 +/- 0.3 hours per week. A total of two participants reported three injuries, yielding an injury prevalence of 16.7% and an estimated injury incidence of 11.6 per 1000 hours of HIFT. The most common injury reported was to the shoulder (66.7%) and the knee (33.3%). Additional prospective studies are warranted to determine the effects of injuries that occur among HIFT beginners.</p> Guillermo Escalante , Christopher Gentry Copyright (c) Tue, 17 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Preliminary development of a tactical athlete nutrition score <p>Tactical athletes are at high risk for numerous conditions that are susceptible to nutritional intake. However, nutrition risk assessments in tactical athletes are not routinely implemented. The purpose of this paper was to describe preliminary development of the Tactical Athlete Nutrition Score (TANS). A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of career firefighters (<em>N</em> = 150, all males) in southern California. Participants completed a 3-Day Food Record and other health-related questionnaires, and anthropometric measurements. The TANS was developed through best available evidence, observations, and an expert judgment exercise. The TANS include five variables: total energy, protein, omega-3 fatty acids, total sugar, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Risk levels were quantified according to data from these categories and analyzed accordingly. The TANS appeared to effectively differentiate individuals based on nutrition risk, with separation observed among the TANS risk levels – low risk (<em>n</em> = 7), moderate risk (<em>n</em> = 77), high risk (<em>n</em> = 66). One-way analysis of variance revealed significant difference among the risk categories for the five nutrition variables and TANS total (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.001)<em>.</em> The observed risk categories are plausible based on knowledge of this population. This study suggests the TANS is feasible to proceed to full-scale validation research trials. If validity is established, TANS will contribute to assessing nutrition risk level and improving nutrition interventions among tactical athletes.</p> Brittany V. B. Johnson, John M. Mayer Copyright (c) Sat, 21 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of partial body weight support on dual-task walking in older adults with multiple sclerosis <p>Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience gait impairments, particularly while dual-tasking, that contribute to an increased risk of falls. Because falls negatively impact participation and quality of life, it is essential to examine how to improve dual-tasking gait. However, no studies, to date, have examined how gait variability is affected by partial body weight support (PBWS) while dual-tasking in older adults with MS. This study examined how PBWS can affect dual-tasking gait variability in older adults with MS and age-matched healthy older adults (HOA). Twenty individuals from each group underwent a dual-tasking paradigm under PBWS and no body weight support (NBWS) while recording gait variability measures. Under PBWS, older adults with MS exhibited significantly greater decreases in gait variability measurements (i.e. smaller coefficient of variation for step width and stride time) when compared with HOA and NBWS. These study findings suggest that PBWS can assist with dual-tasking gait variability and may serve as a therapeutic tool for clinicians and rehabilitation specialists for improving dual-task ability and potentially decreasing fall risk. This study was the first to investigate the effects of dual-tasking under PBWS on gait variability measures in older adults with MS and age-matched controls.</p> Gioella N. Chaparro, Robert W. Motl, Manuel E. Hernandez Copyright (c) Tue, 04 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Endothelium dependent vasodilation is not enhanced in healthy women with varying degrees of orthostatic intolerance <p>The purpose of this study was to determine if the vasodilator capacity of the popliteal artery in women was augmented or the vasoconstrictor capacity in the lower extremity was attenuated in women with orthostatic intolerance. Orthostatic tolerance was assessed using a graded lower body negative pressure test and cumulative stress index (CSI). Popliteal artery diameter and velocity (Doppler ultrasound) was measured in 13 orthostatically tolerant and 7 orthostatically intolerant (OT: CSI range, -633 to -1875 mmHg; OI: CSI range, -80 to -552 mmHg·min; <em>P</em> = 0.015) women after 5 min of distal calf occlusion (FMD), 3 min of cold pressor test (CPT), and 5 min of distal calf occlusion combined with CPT (FMD+CPT).&nbsp; Peak popliteal diameter, measured during FMD+CPT was not different from peak popliteal diameter during FMD. Popliteal FMD, normalized to the shear stimulus, was not different between OT and OI women or between FMD and FMD+CPT.&nbsp; Despite similar vasoconstrictor responses to CPT, assessed by the reduction in peak popliteal artery conductance (OT: -11.0±15.6%; OI: -9.1±23.8%), the magnitude of change in peak popliteal conductance actually increased during FMD+CPT and was similar in OT vs. OI women (OT: 5.8±31.5%; OI: 47.2±60.1%). In conclusion, endothelium dependent vasodilation of the popliteal artery at rest is not enhanced in healthy women with varying degrees of orthostatic intolerance. The increase in popliteal vascular conductance during the combined stimulus (FMD+CPT) may suggest inhibition of sympathetic vasoconstriction via nitric oxide mediated vasodilation (or other dilators) and/or differential control of sympathetic activation in the arms and legs.</p> Alexa M. Brooks, Tinna Traustadóttir, J. Richard Coast, J. Richard Coast, Sara S. Jarvis Copyright (c) Wed, 05 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Inclusivity of collegiate campus recreation programs in region vi of nirsa: a content analysis of websites <p>To improve the living conditions of and provide more rights and protections for individuals with disabilities, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was signed into law in 1990. Collegiate campus recreation programs are supported by student fees and/or tuition, they are a component of the educational enterprise, and they provide students a variety of benefits. As such, they should be available to all students, including those with disabilities. This study’s purpose was to determine the inclusivity and accessibility of collegiate campus recreation programs for students with disabilities, specifically in terms of representativeness on program websites within Region VI of the National Intramural-Recreational Sports Association. Twenty-four universities from Alaska, Arizona, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Northern California, Oregon, Southern California, Utah, and Washington were included. Each university’s campus recreation website was reviewed for inclusive terminology, inclusive images, and inclusivity statements. Two universities accounted for 39.48% of the total number of terms used. The largest majority used only one disability-related term on their website, half used a total of eight or fewer terms, and one university used outdated terminology. Fourteen (58.33%) of the universities included no pictures of people with disabilities <em>or </em>adaptive equipment on their website. Only six (25%) had a collegiate campus recreation program-specific statement at their website. On the 30<sup>th</sup> anniversary of the ADA, the majority of collegiate campus recreation programs assessed in this study had only minimal information for and representation and visibility of students with disabilities at their websites. Several recommendations are advanced to improve upon this.</p> Anna M Bruning, Bradley J Cardinal, Winston Kennedy Copyright (c) 2020 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness Thu, 24 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 What would Massengale recommend? Words of wisdom for a professional future <p>Not applicable</p> Sharon K. Stoll Copyright (c) 2020 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness Thu, 29 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Practical experiential learning: a methodology approach for teaching undergraduate biomechanics <p>Biomechanics is the field of study that examines different physical characteristics of the human body combined with the principles of Newtonian mechanics. This discipline requires competency in algebra, trigonometry, and physics, which is particularly challenging for many students pursuing an undergraduate degree in kinesiology. This paper presents the development and implementation of a biomechanics instructional approach for kinesiology undergraduate students using active-experimental learning sections. Focused on integrating acquired knowledge and applied real-life examples via hands-on experiences, the students work in small groups to complete five lab activities and a final project. Lab activities are designed to match concepts in the lectures as well as advance students’ skills in data collection, processing, and analysis. These active and experimental learning approaches offer students the opportunity to gain occupational experience by collecting data and estimating kinematic and kinetic parameters. Students also critically interpret data and gain a solid understanding of methods used to improve the performer's movements. Throughout the semester, students demonstrate improvements in their critical thinking abilities and proficiency in using dedicated biomechanical software and hardware through a series of increasingly challenging lab activities. They also apply the learned skills in their final project, where they choose and analyze a unique movement for injury prevention and/or performance improvement. In conclusion, the progressive arrangement of these activities successfully guides students to practice and apply their data collection and analytical skills to human movement analysis.</p> Leia B. Bagesteiro Copyright (c) 2021 2021 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness Wed, 13 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Physiological and psychological differences between novices and advanced boulderers <p>Introduction: Rock climbing, especially bouldering, has increasingly become a mainstream sport. However, there has been little research comparing physiological and psychological traits of advanced and novice climbers. Methods: Thirty-two climbers (14 advanced (ADV), 18 novice (NOV) took part in this study. Anthropometric, body composition, flexibility, force, and psychological measurements were performed. MANOVA and post-hoc t-tests were used to compare between groups. Results: ADV climbed harder than NOV (V scale – 7.5 ± 1.6 vs 4.4 ± 1.2, p &lt; 0.05). ADV were found to have significantly lower body fat percentage (12.3 ± 6.7 vs 17.5 ± 6.8%, p &lt; 0.05), and higher grip strength relative to body weight (normal grip relative to body weight – 76.2 ± 14.1 vs. 63.1 ± 16.8% right hand, 74.7 ± 13.9 vs 58.9 ± 12.2% left hand, p &lt; 0.05, Pinch grip relative to body weight – 0.4 ± .09 vs 0.3 ± .05%, p &lt; 0.05), and maximum rate of force development as a percentage of body weight during a pull-up (.86 ± .38 vs .37 ± .30%, p &lt; 0.01). Discussion: Advanced climbers have a significantly better power to weight ratio, giving them a better ability to generate explosive movements. It may be beneficial for novice climbers to train to increase their power to weight ratio, whether by increasing upper body power, decreasing fat mass, or increasing the grip to weight ratio.</p> Emma Gabriano, Julia Swanson, Vincent Luna, Jared Harris, Brett Shagena, Noah Banez, Trent Shaw, Eric Wong, Jacob Clark, Timothy A. VanHaitsma Copyright (c) Thu, 12 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Gender balance in ESPN and espnw content <p>With an increasing number of females participating in sports, coverage of women’s sport is still disappointingly unbalanced.&nbsp; The launch of espnW seemed like an excellent platform to expand coverage of women’s sports.&nbsp; The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which the pattern of disproportionate coverage persisted when the content of top headlines/stories presented online by ESPN and espnW were compared.&nbsp; For five days in each of three weeks in April 2018, two pairs of researchers analyzed: (a) top headlines/stories, (b) buzz articles, and (c) photos located at or near the top of articles.&nbsp; A content analysis at the article and paragraph level was conducted based on codebooks developed to provide information related to (a) differences in the proportion of the content focused on female sports/athletes on each site, (b) the type of sports covered on each site, (c) the extent to which content was repeated from one day to the next, and (d) differences in the number and content of photos displayed on each site.&nbsp; Results indicated that differences in the proportion of content coverage of females were present: 23% of espnW article content focused on female athletes versus 31% of espnW article content focused on male athletes, and there was an even greater imbalance on ESPN where only 2% of the top headline articles focused on females.&nbsp; These results parallel previous studies’ findings of gender bias in sport media coverage.</p> Aurelyn S. Ancheta, Joanna Peet, Anthony Abuyen, Bethany Shifflett Copyright (c) Tue, 17 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Gender, body norms, and sports apparel advertisements <p>The purpose of this paper is to explore the ways in which sports apparel advertisements reinforce and challenge body standards of masculinity and femininity. A content analysis of photos appearing on the ecommerce websites of Nike and Under Armour was performed to analyze body type and sexualization of male and female models featured in “Tops” and “Bottoms” sections. Men’s Tops (M=1.2779), Women’s Tops (M=3.5834), and Women’s Bottoms (M= 2.6597) were considered “non-sexualized” while Men’s Bottoms (M=5.6051) were considered “sexualized”. Both male and female models were consistently reflective of ectomorph (e.g., thin/emaciated) or ecto-mesomorph (e.g., thin but shapely) body types. While some male models were considered to have a mesomorph body type (e.g., muscular/athletic), no female models did. No female or male models used in these advertisements had either endo-mesomorph (e.g., somewhat overweight) or endomorph (e.g., obese) body types. These findings are consistent with societal expectations for women to have a thin body type (Pompper et al., 2007; Law &amp; Labre, 2002). Interestingly, more male models were portrayed with the thin ideal in comparison to a muscular ideal, which challenges previous research (Pompper et al., 2007; Law &amp; Labre, 2002). Findings may suggest need for more accurate depiction of the average human body type to challenge traditional gender norms which are linked with psychological detriments for both males and females (Pompper et al., 2007; Law &amp; Labre, 2002).</p> Emily Weber, Heather Van Mullem Copyright (c) Wed, 05 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Exercise in the management of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome <p>Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) is an autonomic dysfunction characterized by orthostatic symptoms including an increase in heart rate of at least 30 beats per minute (bpm) or reaching above 120 bpm soon after a postural change (Busmer, 2011). Symptoms include, but are not limited to, dizziness, nausea, palpitations, sweating, and fatigue. Twenty-five percent of those with POTS are unable to work (Busmer, 2013). One common pharmacologic treatment is beta-blockers (Lai et al 2009). There is little research into non-pharmacologic treatments, including exercise. The purpose of this case study was to determine if physical activity alleviates physical (heart rate) and psychological (depression and anxiety) symptoms of a patient with POTS. Following eight weeks of physical activity, the patient still met the diagnostic criteria of POTS. However, her quality of life improved based on the WHOQOL-100 AND HADS scores, and she reported being able to perform more tasks at home without feeling heart palpitations. The case study showed an improvement in quality of life for the participant with POTS, but minimal changes in heart rate response following standing post-intervention.</p> Kassandra Adger, Heidi Lynch Copyright (c) 2020 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cross-calibration of GE Lunar iDXA and Prodigy Densitometer for measurement of bone mineral density in young adults <p>The assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) is essential to skeletal health, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a type of bone densitometer that is extensively used in both clinical and research settings. When changing a DXA system during longitudinal monitoring or multicenter studies, it is important to conduct cross-calibration between the new and reference scanners to ensure that BMD values measured by the two systems are as close as possible. Purpose: To properly cross calibrate between the GE Lunar iDXA and Prodigy in healthy young adults. Methods: Thirty college students, ten males and twenty females, participated in the study. The BMD at the lumbar spine and dual femurs were measured using the GE iDXA and Prodigy by the same licensed technician on the same day. A paired sample t-test and linear regression analysis were utilized to compare the BMD values between the two systems. Limits of agreement were obtained by Bland-Altman analyses. Results: Although strong correlations were found between the two systems (<em>r</em> = 0.985 – 0.998), the iDXA had significantly higher lumbar spine (1.54%) and dual femur (1.28 - 1.56%) BMD values compared to the Prodigy. Conclusion: Our results suggest that calibration equations should be considered to examine data across densitometers to reduce system differences in the young adult population.</p> Erick A. Ramirez, Guillermo Escalante, Zhaojing Chen Copyright (c) 2020 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Energy expenditure in a Syme’s amputee triathlete <p>Energy expenditure prediction equations developed for able-bodied populations may be inaccurate for para-athletes, a population characterized by different types of impairments. Sufficient data do not exist currently to generate or validate energy expenditure predictive equations for para-athletes to establish dietary recommendations to cover the demands of sport. The purpose of this observational study was to assess energy expenditure and substrate usage from a trained para-athlete at rest and while performing the athlete’s specific mode of exercise. One para-athlete recruited from the Challenged Athletes Foundation (female; age 32) participated in the study. The participant was a left leg Syme’s amputee triathlete. Resting metabolic rate was measured for the triathlete. Energy expenditure was also measured at moderate (64-76% of age-predicted HRmax) and vigorous intensity exercise (77-95% of age-predicted HRmax) on a stationary cycle ergometer on a separate day. The triathlete’s energy expenditure during exercise was higher than that predicted by the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) matched by exercise type at a moderate (measured: 7.0 kcal/min, predicted: 5.0 kcal/min) and vigorous intensity (measured: 9.3 kcal/min, predicted: 7.0 kcal/min). The Revised Harris-Benedict and the Mifflin-St Jeor equations underestimated resting metabolic rate in the triathlete (measured: 2,194 kcal/day, predicted: 1,348 ± 39 kcal/day). This study indicates that equations developed for able-bodied populations underestimate energy expenditure in a Syme’s amputee when compared to the measured energy expenditure values assessed by indirect calorimetry at rest and during a workout on both a stationary cycle ergometer and while running on the track.</p> Erin J. Beezhold, Brandon J. Sawyer, Heidi M. Lynch Copyright (c) 2020 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A comparison of body composition measurements in college students using three assessment devices <p>Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS), and ultrasound (US) are commonly used to estimate body composition, but each method has limitations.&nbsp; This study compared the body composition estimations of the three devices in college students.&nbsp; Ten males (23.7 ± 1.9 years; 171.9 ± 6.7 cm; 81.8 ± 11.4 kg) and twenty females (23.1 ± 1.9 years; 161.8 ± 6.1 cm; 64.9 ± 15.3 kg) volunteered.&nbsp; Pearson correlation coefficients between the devices were strong.&nbsp; Body fat percentage estimations for the DXA, BIS, and US were 30.6 ± 9.2, 28.3 ± 9.1, and 22.8 ± 8.1 respectively.&nbsp; The ANOVA revealed a difference in body composition between the devices and Tukey’s post hoc tests identified that there was a statistically significant difference between the BIS and the US and the US and DXA, but not between the BIS and DXA.&nbsp; The level of agreement (LOA) was wide between the DXA and US (mean difference 7.8, LOA between 0.23 and 15.4) and between the BIS and US (mean difference 5.4, LOA between -3.4 and 14), but narrower between the BIS and DXA (mean difference 2.4, LOA between -4.2 to 9).&nbsp; When comparing changes in body composition, it is best to utilize the same device to minimize the error in the reported differences in body composition.&nbsp; Future studies should compare the body composition estimation from these devices to a more accurate multi-compartment model to help determine their accuracy in college students.</p> Julio C. Mora, Zhaojing Chen, Guillermo Escalante Copyright (c) 2020 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A smartphone mindfulness-based intervention pilot study with competitive high school baseball players <p>Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have shown efficacy with diverse populations. The training periods for sport MBIs range 4-10 weeks, but positive outcomes have been found during the first 2-4 weeks This is promising as athletes have busy schedules. Additionally, smartphone MBIs are gaining in popularity, but research with them is just beginning. Therefore, the purpose of this pilot study was to investigate a brief MBI with competitive high school baseball players. Participants included four athletes (mean 15.6 years) from one club team and their head coach. The athletes completed mindfulness training via Headspace ( Each athlete was interviewed post-intervention. The head coach was also interviewed to gain insight into any observed changes in his athletes. Consensual Qualitative Research analysis resulted in four categories: Mindfulness, Readiness for Competition, Self-confidence, and Perceptions of the Intervention. All athletes discussed the MBI as facilitative for mental preparation for competition. Further, one athlete initially reporting low self-confidence, felt that his confidence improved after participation in the pilot study. Finally, all participants identified the app as a convenient way to practice mindfulness given their busy schedules. Positive outcomes in the current study are supported in the literature and provide insight into the efficacy and acceptability of a smartphone MBI. Future directions for research and implications for applied settings are discussed.</p> Blake Costalupes, Jenelle N. Gilbert, Wade Gilbert, Michael G. Coles Copyright (c) 2021 2021 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness Thu, 07 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Attitudinal beliefs towards individuals with disabilities at a metropolitan university: Insights and implications for kinesiology professionals <p>The primary aim of this study was to examine the attitudinal beliefs of college students, faculty, and staff at a public metropolitan university toward individuals with disabilities. This cross-sectional study utilized the Interactions with Disabled Persons Scale to assess current perceptions of individuals with disabilities of students, faculty, and staff (n=138). Independent <em>t</em>-tests and an ANOVA were utilized to examine differences between students and faculty/staff. Results revealed males, individuals with some experience in coursework related to individuals with disabilities, and those with higher volumes of contact with individuals with disabilities displayed lower scores on the IDP. Additional research utilizing a larger sample size is needed to confirm these findings. Importantly, this paper provides evidence of the need for efforts by kinesiology educators to provide curriculum and experiential activities that increase exposure to individuals with disabilities in order to heighten knowledge, lessen discomfort, and ultimately improve the experiences and outcomes of individuals with a disability at metropolitan universities.</p> Alex Berndt, Daniel B. Kissinger, Michael Messerole, John Noble, Danae Dinkel Copyright (c) 2021 2021 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness Tue, 12 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Selective attention is resistant to high intensity exercise and musical distraction <p>The effects of high-intensity exercise on cognitive performance are not fully understood. Music can affect physiological responses to exercise which may also affect cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to determine if music could impact cognitive performance after a bout of high-intensity exercise. Eleven subjects completed the Stroop test after a short (14 min) bout of high-intensity interval exercise while listening to either Classical, Rock, or No Music. Subjects completed the Brunel Music Rating Inventory after listening to Classical or Rock music during a control (no exercise) session. The order of testing was randomized. There was no significant main effect of either exercise (<em>F</em>(1,2) = 0.585, <em>p</em> = 0.524) or music (<em>F</em>(2,4) = 1.939, <em>p</em> = 0.258) on Stroop reaction time, nor was there a significant interaction effect of exercise and music on Stroop reaction time (<em>F</em>(2,4) = 0.045, <em>p</em> = .956). There was a significant main effect of exercise on heart rate response (<em>F</em>(1,2) = 564.005, <em>p</em> &lt; 0.01). Mean heart rates were consistently higher during exercise (HRex= 148.2 ± 14.7) than during control sessions (HRcon= 76.1 ± 9.1). There was no other significant main effect for music (<em>F</em>(2,4) = 2.537, <em>p</em> = 0.194) or interaction effect of music and exercise (F(2,4) = 2.980, <em>p</em> = 0.161) on heart rate response. The results of the present study suggest that selective attention is resistant to the effects of a short high-intensity interval exercise bout and the distraction of either classical or rock music. The results also suggest that music may lower the average heart rate during high-intensity interval exercise.</p> Derek Jones, Jeffrey Fariss, Robert Blaisdell, Laura Jimenez, Jo Morrison Copyright (c) 2021 2021 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness Tue, 12 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000