Journal of Kinesiology & Wellness https://jkw.wskw.org/index.php/jkw <p>The Journal of Kinesiology &amp; Wellness (JKW) is a peer-reviewed online journal that covers issues in physical activity, health, wellness, and sport. JKW is a publication of the <a href="http://www.wskw.org" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness</a> (WSKW) and is published bi-annually.</p> en-US jbernard1@csustan.edu (Jeff Bernard) ovandef@csun.edu (Ovande Furtado, Jr.) Fri, 19 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Message from the Editor https://jkw.wskw.org/index.php/jkw/article/view/83 Jeffrey Berndt Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://jkw.wskw.org/index.php/jkw/article/view/83 Mon, 22 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Middle school students’ intrinsic motivation and expectancy value after participating in team sport units https://jkw.wskw.org/index.php/jkw/article/view/82 <p>Background/Purpose. K-12 students’ motivation levels have declined in physical education (PE) due to the lack of effective instructional practices, inappropriate class activities and gender inequities. Middle school students have shown low levels of motivation in physical education and lack of interest in its content. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine middle school students’ intrinsic motivation and expectancy value after participating in team sports units. Method. Participants consisted of 262 students (122 males; 140 females) from three middle schools located in the southwest region of the United States. After participating in team sport units during PE, the participants completed the expectancy-value questionnaire (Eccles &amp; Wigfield, 1995) and motivation inventory (McAuley, Duncan, &amp; Tammen, 1989). Analysis/Results. Data were analyzed by employing descriptive statistics, <em>t</em>-test, and analysis of variance. Results showed that 6th grade students perceived significantly higher expectancy-value and intrinsic value than 8th grade students in team sports. In addition, male students exhibited significantly higher expectancy-value and intrinsic value compare to female students. However, there was no statistically significant difference among ethnic groups. Conclusion.&nbsp; This study suggests that female students had lower levels of intrinsic motivation and expectancy value in team sports compared to male students. Furthermore, as students’ grade level increased from 6th to 8th grade, intrinsic motivation and expectancy value decreased.</p> Minhyun Kim, José A. Santiago, Hyeonho Yu, Jun-Hyung Baek Copyright (c) 2021 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://jkw.wskw.org/index.php/jkw/article/view/82 Thu, 18 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Dilemmas and problems of being a moral educator https://jkw.wskw.org/index.php/jkw/article/view/84 <p>Kinesiology is the science of human movement. Within the United States, kinesiology encompasses different sub-disciplines of human movement, e.g., exercise physiology, biomechanics, sport psychology, and philosophy, as well as, the professions of teaching, leading, and training. This paper addresses one issue, the lack of moral education in the preparation of kinesiology pre-professionals. Moral education is imperative for kinesiology students to address issues of right and wrong as well as engage in higher order reasoning however, many problems exist in applying moral education to kinesiology. First, even though 37 states have some sort of requirement that moral education is a part of the general public education curriculum, apparently, no direct teaching of moral values exists in public elementary, middle, and high schools. Students arrive at the university with no background. Second, direct teaching of moral values is nonexistent because: teachers and college instructors are not content experts in moral education, consumer-based education drives and affects students’ value of education, and the fallacious argument that ethics should only be taught to the young. Third, moral pedagogy is seldom applied. All of which directly affects kinesiology students in making decisions of right and wrong in a service profession.&nbsp; Therefore, the purpose of this narrative philosophical paper is twofold: to discuss the problems and dilemmas incorporating moral education in kinesiology curriculum and discuss three specific solutions, the: a) creation of moral development courses, b) use of writing intensive courses, and c) development of courses in pedagogy. A narrative philosophical approach discusses theory and supports with real life examples.</p> Aubrey Shaw, Sharon Stoll Copyright (c) 2021 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://jkw.wskw.org/index.php/jkw/article/view/84 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Examining the relationship between falls self-efficacy and postural sway in community-dwelling older adults https://jkw.wskw.org/index.php/jkw/article/view/85 <p><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif; font-size: 14.6667px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">The most common cause for both fatal and nonfatal injuries for older adults in the U.S. is experiencing a fall. Researchers are interested in identifying variables which may help predict a person’s likelihood of falling to create targeted, preventative initiatives. Previous research has explored the relationship between psychosocial and biophysical fall predictors on fall outcomes but rarely explores the ontological lens which surrounds how these finding are interpreted. The purpose of this study was to further examine the relationship between falls self-efficacy and postural sway, in community-dwelling, aging adults (</span><em style="color: #000000; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif; font-size: 14.6667px; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">N</em><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif; font-size: 14.6667px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">=107, mean age 73.8, + 7.95, female 80) to bring a more robust understanding of fall risk assessment using a Biopsychosocial (BPS) perspective through the International Classification of Functioning model (ICF). The Modified Falls Efficacy Scale measured fall self-efficacy and the BTrackS balance assessment system measured postural sway. A moderate negative correlation was found between falls self-efficacy and eyes open postural sway (</span><em style="color: #000000; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif; font-size: 14.6667px; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">r</em><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif; font-size: 14.6667px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;= -.403,&nbsp;</span><em style="color: #000000; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif; font-size: 14.6667px; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">p&nbsp;</em><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif; font-size: 14.6667px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&lt; .001.), indicating that as a person’s self-efficacy score increases, their sway decreases, in line with previous studies. Participants experienced overall high self-efficacy, stellar balance performance for their age group, and low self-reported falls, leading one to wonder what variables cause the decline in performance and competence and/or contribute to a fall in such a group. Using a BPS perspective through the ICF, researchers suggest further exploration into the role that ableism and fear of disability play in the decline, and the responsibility of clinicians to disrupt anti-ableist narratives within rehabilitation and research.</span></p> Kathleen McCarty, Winston Kennedy, Sam Logan, Susan Levy Copyright (c) 2021 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://jkw.wskw.org/index.php/jkw/article/view/85 Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin a1c differ by gender and race among emerging adults https://jkw.wskw.org/index.php/jkw/article/view/88 <p>To examine the relationship between, and disparities in, glycemic markers among emerging adults. <strong>Methods</strong>: A diverse group of emerging adults affiliated with a large university located in the Northeast of the US were recruited. Participants self-reported demographic information, and lipids and glycemic markers were assessed using a finger-stick screening with participants fasted for a minimum of 9-12 hours before blood sampling. <strong>Results</strong>: Data were collected from 217 participants (21±2 years). Regardless of gender or race, no statistically significant relationship was found between FPG and either HbA<sub>1C</sub>. However, those of ‘other’ races were found to have significantly higher FPG and HbA<sub>1C</sub> compared to non-Hispanic white participants, and gender differences in glycemic markers were only observed among non-Hispanic white participants. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: While limited by a relatively small sample size, findings reinforce the importance of recognizing racial differences in glycemic markers when diagnosing and treating diabetes given racial disparities were observed in otherwise healthy emerging adults.</p> Michael E. Healy, Oliver W. A. Wilson, Christopher M. Bopp Copyright (c) 2021 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://jkw.wskw.org/index.php/jkw/article/view/88 Wed, 16 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000