Journal of Kinesiology & Wellness <p>The Journal of Kinesiology &amp; Wellness (JKW) is a peer-reviewed online journal that covers issues in physical activity, health, wellness, and sport. JKW is a publication of the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness</a> (WSKW) and is published bi-annually.</p> en-US (Ovande Furtado Jr) (Ovande Furtado, Jr.) Thu, 14 Jul 2022 19:06:03 +0000 OJS 60 Visual reweighting using stroboscopic vision in healthy individuals <p>Testing how individuals use visual information to maintain balance has been traditionally limited to two extreme conditions: eyes closed and eyes open. Stroboscopic glasses allow clinicians to control the amount of visual information that influences balance, varying between eyes open and closed. Seventeen uninjured participants completed the sensory organization test (SOT) under three visual conditions: full occlusion, high occlusion (i.e., 100ms transparent, 400ms opaque), and low occlusion (i.e., 100ms transparent, 100ms opaque). Equilibrium scores were calculated from the Neurocom Balance Master system during double-limb stance and the three-trial average from each condition and SOT was used for analysis. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to evaluate the interaction between and within factors of vision (i.e., full occlusion, high occlusion, low occlusion, and no occlusion) and support surface (i.e., firm and sway). Increased visual occlusion negatively impacts balance on a firm surface and is amplified when somatosensory cues are unreliable. These findings highlight the importance of somatosensory cues as a guiding sensory modality for balance, especially when vision is occluded.</p> Jaeho Jang, Brian A. Knarr, Adam B. Rosen, Christopher J. Burcal Copyright (c) 2022 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness Fri, 12 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Kinematics comparison of squat (2D vs 3D analysis) for remote learning – pilot study <p>Bodyweight squats are a common exercise in athletic training and rehabilitation due to their biomechanical and neuromuscular similarities to fundamental movements in a variety of sports and their requirements of coordination of major joints and numerous muscle groups (Schoenfeld, 2010). They are essential for kinesiology students, whose future careers often include athletic training and rehabilitation, to learn how to analyze the kinematics of a squat. While 3D movement analysis is considered the gold standard for motion capture (Chung &amp; Ng, 2012), 2D digital video analysis is more commonly chosen in education environments to provide hands-on experience. However, few studies have investigated the differences between 2D and 3D analysis of squats (Escamilla et al., 2001; Krause et al., 2015; Schmitz et al., 2015). Therefore, the current study aims to compare 2D and 3D measurements of narrow-stance squats while enhancing learning by engaging students with hands-on experience using free, open-source software. Fifteen healthy adults (nine females, six males, 26.93 ± 9.04 years old) participated in this study. Following proper COVID safety guidelines, 2D analyses were performed by undergraduate students at home while 3D analyses were performed using a motion capture system in the laboratory. Lower extremity joint angles and displacements were calculated using 2D and 3D methods. Statistical significances were found when comparing the differences between both measurements except for hip flexion. Nonetheless, the resulting angular and linear measurements from both 2D and 3D analyses aligned with previous research, suggesting that 2D digital video analysis is a viable option for educational purposes despite the significant differences.</p> Mia Huang, Leia B. Bagesteiro Copyright (c) 2022 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness Sat, 14 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Bicycle coalitions and universities prioritization of equity: why and why not? A shift towards more equitable opportunities <p class="ABSTRACT">Travel by walking or bicycling has a wide range of health benefits, from lowering the risk of obesity to all-cause mortality. Although the benefits of bicycling are well-known, there are various disparities and inequities seen in participation levels and safety in underserved and underrepresented communities (e.g., racial/ethnic minorities, women, low-income, youth, LGBTQ+). Community coalitions and universities have the potential to play a large role in reaching underrepresented populations and establishing equitable programming. The purpose of this study was to understand why equity is or isn’t prioritized throughout bicycle coalition and universities’ programming efforts. <strong>Methods</strong>: A volunteer sample of bicycle coalitions (n=71) and universities (n=51) were surveyed to identify common themes from the participants’ responses regarding why or why not equity was prioritized. <strong>Results</strong>: Common themes among coalitions and universities who ranked equity first, was awareness of the inequality present in their communities, identified equity as an important element, and planned to prioritize equity in their programming. Common themes among those who ranked equity last was the lack of awareness, knowledge, and demand for equity-related issues. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: Equity is a concern for coalitions and universities. Implementation of different resources has the potential to increase equitable programming in both community and university settings.</p> Emily Dzieniszewski, Lucas D. Elliott, Melissa Bopp Copyright (c) 2022 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness Fri, 03 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Citations in Google Scholar profiles by Kinesiology subdiscipline <p>Keywords are important bibliometric tools for classifying, accessing, and summarizing research. Communication in and external recognition of kinesiology research may be limited by inconsistent use of terms. Citations to the top twenty Google Scholar (GS) Citations Profiles were retrieved for 20 kinesiology-related subject keywords used as GS “labels”. Total citations to top scholars were largest for the disciplinary labels “physical activity,” “exercise,” “physical education,” “sport science,” “sports,” “exercise science,” “sport,” and “kinesiology.”&nbsp; Citations to top scholars using professional labels were in “sports medicine” and “coaching.” The results confirm previously reported trends of slow growth of use of the term kinesiology primarily in the United States even though the highest citations were to the “physical activity” focus of the field. Strong citation counts to the “exercise,” “physical education,” and “sport science” GS labels likely result from the diversity of research interests in the field throughout the world. Kinesiology-associated scholars are influential leaders contributing to a majority of highly cited research using kinesiology subdisciplinary keywords as labels in GS Profiles. The study confirmed previous research of inconsistent use of the terms “sport” and “sports.” Inconsistent use of terms and keywords are a barrier to recognition of and the search for kinesiology-related research.</p> Duane Knudson Copyright (c) 2022 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness Fri, 24 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A model for return to training and competition during ongoing pandemic concerns <p>In the wake of a novel Coronavirus, the sports world reeled from the realization that a pandemic of this magnitude had not been seen in more than a century. Reducing the transmission would require physical distancing to such a degree that it would necessitate the suspension of all sporting activities. The multidimensional health effects due to COVID-19 will be far more severe and prolonged if athletes cannot engage in sport at all. Most coaches are concerned with strength and conditioning maintenance as well as technical skill development in response to changes in the sport. Bringing athletes together to train while adhering to government-mandated protective measures, such as facemask use and physical distancing, proved to be a herculean task. The challenge for all sports is how to train in the setting of the new physical distancing required for a healthy community. Sail Canada ran a nine-day training camp and regatta utilizing the knowledge of a team of medical experts to adhere to the government-mandated restrictions without significantly compromising the athletic preparation. The event was a great success and could stand as a model for other sports to maintain training while still protecting the health and wellness of athletes, coaches, and officials.</p> de la Roche R. P. Michael, Telles-Langdon David M., Robin Marc Copyright (c) 2022 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness Fri, 12 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparison of health locus of control and physical activity among Seventh-day Adventists and non-Seventh-day Adventists <p><span class="TextRun SCXW140604067 BCX4" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140604067 BCX4" data-ccp-parastyle="ABSTRACT">This study aimed to assess the correlation between physical activity (PA) levels and health locus of control (HLOC: internal, external-chance, external-powerful others, God/God locus of health control) among Seventh-day Adventists (SDA) and non-SDAs. The sample of this study included 185 individuals aged 22 to 81 who were employed by or attending an SDA affiliated higher education institution during the 2020-2021 academic school year. By completing the survey voluntarily, the participants provided their PA level and information regarding their HLOC. To analyze the impact of HLOC on PA, a multiple regression analysis was conducted. While overall results for </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW140604067 BCX4" data-ccp-parastyle="ABSTRACT">a majority of</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140604067 BCX4" data-ccp-parastyle="ABSTRACT"> respondents showed high levels of PA, SDAs reported statistically significant lower PA than did non-SDAs. HLOC (internal, external-chance, external-powerful others, God/God locus of health control) was not a significant predictor for PA.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW140604067 BCX4" data-ccp-props="{&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559738&quot;:240,&quot;335559739&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> Kimberly E. Feiler, Han G. Ngo Copyright (c) 2022 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness Mon, 19 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring learning outcomes among undergraduate kinesiology students in response to an inclusive physical activity promotion message assignment <p>Numerous professional bodies and curricular models in kinesiology call for the development of undergraduates’ cultural competency. In short, a culturally competent professional (a) mitigates personal biases from adversely affecting others, and (b) is aware of how societal patterns marginalize people (e.g., unquestioned norms; Gill, 2007). The present study aimed to evaluate the extent to which undergraduate students demonstrated learning in response to completing an inclusive physical activity promotion message assignment, which included a focus on designing materials inclusive of people with disabilities.&nbsp; A scholarship of teaching and learning approach was adopted to critically evaluate and reflect on an assignment used in an undergraduate kinesiology course. This case study drew on artifacts from a convenience sample of 10 undergraduate students enrolled in an introduction to adapted physical activity course. A descriptive discourse analysis was conducted of students’ reflections about what they learned from the assignment. Student responses were appraised with Fink’s (2013) taxonomy of significant learning for evidence of learning across six domains: i.e., foundational knowledge, application, integration, human dimension, caring, and self-determination. Student responses were coded and verified. Consensus was reached on all discrepancies. Student reflections signaled learning across four domains: foundational knowledge (n = 9), application (n = 3), integration (n = 5), and human dimensions (n = 6). Developments in the caring or self-determination domains were not evident. The findings indicate potential for the assignment to enhance Kinesiology curricula. As teacher-researchers, we discuss the findings in relation to further development of the assignment to better promote cultural competency.</p> Samantha M. Ross, Jafrā D. Thomas Copyright (c) 2022 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness Fri, 23 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Research quality; a collective endeavor <div>An allegory published nearly 60 years ago titled ‘Chaos in the Brickyard’ (Forscher, 1963) spoke to the decline in the quality of research. In the intervening time, greater awareness of the issues and actions to improve research have emerged. Still, problems persist. This paper is intended to clarify some of the challenges, particularly with respect to quantitative research, then suggest ways the academe can contribute, in concrete ways, to the improvement of the quality of published research. The paper highlights where feasible refinements in research design and analytical techniques can be made and provides a guide to fundamental principles related to data analysis in research.</div> Bethany Shifflett Copyright (c) 2022 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness Sat, 12 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Suitability: a longitudinal study of adult-focused physical activity promotion web articles <p>A cross-sectional design has often been used to study the quality of health-related educational materials meant for lay adults (e.g., patients, the public). The present study addressed this research limitation. We documented the proportion of online physical activity promotion (PAP) material revised within a given time period and how quality was affected, if at all. PAP web articles (<em>N </em>= 139) meant for lay adults, written in English, and first sampled in July 2018, were resampled in July 2020. Mean publication year at timepoint 1 was 2016.82 (±1.24). At timepoint 2 it was 2018.78 (±1.39). At both timepoints, suitability for lay use was appraised using five dimensions of the suitability assessment of materials (SAM) protocol: i.e., content, literacy demand, graphics, layout and typography, and learning stimulation/motivation. There were 61 web articles (43.9%) with indicated revision and analyzed in the present study. Articles were distributed across four organizational subgroups: commercial (<em>n</em> = 21), government (<em>n</em> = 13), professional association (<em>n</em> = 10), and voluntary health agency (<em>n</em> = 17). In the aggregate sample, two SAM dimensions significantly improved: literacy demand (e.g., more active voice) and layout &amp; typography (e.g., formatting). Often, organizational subgroups mirrored the aggregate sample. Although the overall suitability remained within the satisfactory range across the dimensions, a moderate-to-large number of articles remained unsatisfactory at timepoint 2 within several subdomains (e.g., reading grade level, summary section). This study’s findings further evidence PAP materials are somewhat suitable and the need to study suitability subdomains in addition to overall suitability<strong>.</strong></p> Jafrā D. Thomas, Ethan N. Tse, Savannah A. Longoria, Cameron N. Christopher, Bradley J. Cardinal Copyright (c) 2022 Western Society for Kinesiology and Wellness Wed, 16 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000