Kinematics comparison of squat (2D vs 3D analysis) for remote learning – pilot study

  • Mia Huang Department of Kinesiology, San Francisco State University
  • Leia B. Bagesteiro Department of Kinesiology, San Francisco State University
Keywords: lower extremity joints, linear and angular displacements


Bodyweight squats are a common exercise in athletic training and rehabilitation due to their biomechanical and neuromuscular similarities to fundamental movements in a variety of sports and their requirements of coordination of major joints and numerous muscle groups (Schoenfeld, 2010). They are essential for kinesiology students, whose future careers often include athletic training and rehabilitation, to learn how to analyze the kinematics of a squat. While 3D movement analysis is considered the gold standard for motion capture (Chung & Ng, 2012), 2D digital video analysis is more commonly chosen in education environments to provide hands-on experience. However, few studies have investigated the differences between 2D and 3D analysis of squats (Escamilla et al., 2001; Krause et al., 2015; Schmitz et al., 2015). Therefore, the current study aims to compare 2D and 3D measurements of narrow-stance squats while enhancing learning by engaging students with hands-on experience using free, open-source software. Fifteen healthy adults (nine females, six males, 26.93 ± 9.04 years old) participated in this study. Following proper COVID safety guidelines, 2D analyses were performed by undergraduate students at home while 3D analyses were performed using a motion capture system in the laboratory. Lower extremity joint angles and displacements were calculated using 2D and 3D methods. Statistical significances were found when comparing the differences between both measurements except for hip flexion. Nonetheless, the resulting angular and linear measurements from both 2D and 3D analyses aligned with previous research, suggesting that 2D digital video analysis is a viable option for educational purposes despite the significant differences.

How to Cite
Huang, M., & Bagesteiro, L. B. (2022). Kinematics comparison of squat (2D vs 3D analysis) for remote learning – pilot study. Journal of Kinesiology & Wellness, 11, 3-14. Retrieved from